An LED light bulb is a solid-state lighting (SSL) device that fits in standard screw-in connections but uses LEDs (light-emitting diodes) to produce light.
LED light bulbs are a more environmentally-friendly alternative to incandescent bulbs. LED bulbs use a semiconductor device that emits visible light when an electric current passes through it. That property is known as elecroluminescence. Compact fluorescents, the most common alternative to incandescent bulbs, use electricity to excite mercury gas until it emits ultraviolet (UV) light. That light is then passed through a phosphor, which causes it to emit more visible light.
LEDs themselves have been around for some time, but only recently have improvements in efficiency, cost and output made them viable for the larger-scale lighting used in households, businesses and other environments. Due to the rapid progress in LED technologies, products exist with wide ranges of efficiencies and life spans.
The bulbs can work for 50000 hours, if not run outside of the specified temperature range. They use about 8-11 watts of power to replace a 60-watt incandescent with at least 806 lumen and 9.5 watts for a 75-watt equivalent. This capacity provides an efficiency gain of up to 80% over incandescent bulbs.
Other benefits of LED light bulbs:
- Cooler than incandescent bulbs in operation.
- Instant on, unlike compact fluorescent bulbs.
- Broad range of color possibilities.
- Customizable lights can be controlled through a Bluetooth connection.
- Lowest cost over ownership of all lights.
- No mercury and minimal toxic materials required.
- A single lamp represents a reduction of hundreds of pounds of CO2, compared to use of incandescents.
- Possible simultaneous use in data transfer with LiFi.
However there also some caveats. Research indicates that some wavelengths may be damaging to eyes over time. Furthermore, toxic metals are used to produce some wavelengths of lights, which would increase the environmental impact of those particular bulbs.
David Pogue discusses LED light bulbs:
...1. INTRODUCTION This piece of work is the further investigation of the 3B5 - Schottky Barrier Diode (SBD) experiment. It involves a comprehensive data error analysis to both the raw data from the experiment and the parameters derived from them. An in-depth probe to the SBD is also done by examining the fundamental theory of SBD with illustrative band diagrams and reference to the thermionic emission theory. The ideal SBD model is then compared with common p-n junction and their differences are discussed. Further analysis on the non-ideal behaviours of both the SBD and p-n junction diodes are performed as well. Evac Metal eΦm EF n-type semiconductor Evac eχsc eΦsc Ec EF Ev Figure 1 – Band diagram of metal and n-type semiconductor when they are not in contact 2. RESULTS 3. DISCUSSION 3.1 Accuracy of Measurements There are a number of techniques to determine uncertainties in data, analytically or graphically. Table 1 shows some general rules in calculating data errors when simple algorithmic operations are performed. Table 1 – Some rules to calculate data errors in algorithmic operations For multi-variable functions, e.g. f(x,y,z), the resultant error in the value of the function comes from the contribution of individual error in each variable, i.e. , and the relation is as follows Graphically, to obtain the 3.2 Theory of SBD (Compared with P-N Junction) 3.2.1 SBD Theory by Band Diagram Illustration The SBD demonstrates a rectifying effect by taking advantage......
Words: 2753 - Pages: 12
Fiber Optics vs Led
...Fiber optic light sources must be able to turn on and off millions to billions of times per second while projecting a nearly microscopic beam of light into an optical fiber. Both Light Emitting Diodes and Laser transmitters are considered to be semiconductor light sources. However, they differ greatly in output patterns. Forward biased LEDs generate light when positive voltage is applied to the “p” region and negative voltage is applied to the “n” region of the diode. Random photons are emitted at the junction where the “p” and “n” regions meet once a current is passed through the LED. The photons that are emitted are out of phase and not launched in the same direction. This is called incoherent light. Only a small percentage of this light is actually coupled into the optical fiber since incoherent light is difficult to focus. There are two types of LEDs, surface emitting and edge emitting. Surface emitting LEDs are formed from a single semiconductor material in the “pn” junction. Because of this, incoherent photons radiate from all points of the junction. Edge emitting LEDs are formed from similar materials with different refractive indexes. These indexes are used to guide the light and create a directional output. Light is emitted though an etched opening in the diode. Laser sources also have a “p” and “n” region but contain the emitted photons using an optical cavity and reflecting mirrors on each end of the diode. One mirror is only partially reflective......
Words: 563 - Pages: 3
Marketing Plan of Led Lights
...ASSIGMENT ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR Submitted to : Dr. JAMSHED Submitted by: QISMAT ALI KHAN COMSATS INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ATTOCK OF COLGATE TOOTH PASTE The premium toothpaste market in India is a market that many players are aspiring to be a part of and Colgate has been trying for gaining a more and more market share of this market from a very long time and this is evident from the launch of a new and improved version of Colgate Sensitive Original, known as Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief. Earlier this premium segment of the market consisted of a lot of players like Colgate's very own Sensitive, Pepsodent's Sensitive, Miswak and a few more players in the market who were already charging a premium price from the consumers as compared to the other variants of toothpastes available in the toothpaste market i.e. the prices in this segment were at a premium of around 30 percent than the other toothpaste variants present in the market. Also, if Pepsodent was already present in this segment then......
Words: 1125 - Pages: 5
Visible Light Communication
...Modeling and Designing of a New Indoor Free Space Visible Light Communication System∗ Z. Wu, J. Chau, and T.D.C. Little Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts email@example.com August 1, 2011 MCL Technical Report No. 08-01-2011 Abstract–Recent developments in solid-state light-emitting diode (LED) materials and devices is driving a resurgence into the use of free-space optics (FSO) for wireless broadband communication. This technology uses the visible spectrum provided by “white” LEDs that are becoming ubiquitous in lighting and has some desirable properties competitive with existing radio frequency (RF) communications. By leveraging the low-cost nature of LEDs and lighting units there are many opportunities to exploit this medium for widespread optical communication deployment. The optical medium, however, has particular characteristics, including directionality and susceptibility to noise sources in the visible spectrum that must be managed. In this paper we present a new indoor FSO system, also known as a visible light communication (VLC) system that addresses achieving satisfactory data rates through diffuse link while supporting mobility under line of sight (LOS) constraints. The system model is presented with theoretical performance analysis indicating a promising rate for indoor scenarios. The new VLC prototype that can deliver in excess of 1 Mbps while providing both illumination and communication at several meters is......
Words: 1962 - Pages: 8
Understanding Future of Led Market in India
...SUMMER TRAINING PROJECT REPORT ON UNDERSTANDING THE SALES PROCESS, PREPARING A STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE MANUAL & A STUDY OF THE FUTURE OF LED LIGHTS IN INDIA FOR INLITE PVT LTD. BANDRA, MUMBAI BY KIRAN UIKEY (roll no.171) (MMS 2012-14) IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE IN masters IN management studies (m.m.s) FROM MET – INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT, MUMBAI. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It is my immense pleasure to present this report of summer training. I am grateful to Mr. Naresh Shahri (Managing Director) for allowing me to do summer internship in the sales department of Inlite Pvt Ltd. I would like to express my deep felt gratitude to my mentor Mr. Avinash Shahri (Head- Sales & Marketing) who has guided me from the inception till the successful completion of my project report. He has guided me through the 2months of the internship, taught me the basics of led lighting & the lighting industry and has helped me to comprehend the basics of my project. He was always open to suggestions and maintained a professional as well as friendly environment at the workplace. I would also like to express my heartfelt gratitude to Mr. Ashwin Dsouza (Business development manager) who has been immensely supportive, friendly and a great source of knowledge. I would like to thank the other staff members of Inlite Pvt Ltd for giving me their valuable time and constant support which made this project report a success. KIRAN UIKEY MMS......
Words: 9031 - Pages: 37
...LED LIGHTS A Museum Exhibit Case Study By John Miles June 06, 2014 In April 2014, the Durango County Museum of History installed a small exhibit titled Our heritage: Pictures from the past. The collection consists of five daguerreotypes and several silver albumen prints. A study was made to measure the benefits and costs of using LED lights instead of traditional halogen lamps. RISKS OF LIGHTING HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPHS All lighting harms photographs. (Lavedrine 2003) It is the task of the conservator to minimize this harm so that the photographs can be viewed for a significant span of time, typically 50 to 100 years. For these reasons, historical photographs are displayed only periodically in rooms with significantly reduced lighting. These practices minimize the visitor experience and according to Hunt, reducing light levels diminishes color saturation and contrast. (Hunt 1952, 192) In all lighting systems, ultraviolet light (UV) must be eliminated as that spectrum harms photographs the most. Halogen lights must have UV filters installed which adds to their cost and effectiveness. LED lamps do not emit UV light and do not need extra filters. According to a study by the Getty Conservation Institute, fading from LED lamps does not result in any more damage than conventional halogen lamps with ultraviolet filtering. They found that it is likely using LED lamps results in less fading of photographic materials. (Druzik and Miller 2011) METHODOLOGY In the new exhibit, 12......
Words: 715 - Pages: 3
Led and Photodiode
...Light emitting Diode Light-emitting diodes are elements for light signalization in electronics. The basic principle behind the working of LED is electroluminescence. The Light emitting diode should be forward biased to get the light. In Light emitting diodes, electrons are injected from low work function cathode to the conduction band of the n-type semiconducting material and holes are injected from high work function anode to the valence band ot the p-type semiconducting material. When the electron in the conduction band combines with the hole in the valence band, energy is released. In case of indirect band gap semicondutors, phonon will be released to conserve of both energy and momentum. But in case of direct band gap semiconductor, light will be emitted whose wavelength depends on the band gap of the semiconductor. Different parts of a Light emitting diode Radiative recombination in direct and indirect bandgap semiconductor Cartoon showing radiative recombination in a direct band-gap semiconductor Schematic diagram of working of an LED Light emitting Diode and its circuit symbol ...
Words: 507 - Pages: 3
...NT 1310 PROF WONG 12NOV2014 LIGHT SOURCES AND COMPONENTS – Definitions Forward biased LED-is a positive voltage that is applied to the P region and negative voltage to the N region, causing current to flow through the LED. Incoherent light- out of phase photons that emitted from the junction with the PM and regions meet and are not in phase nor are they launched in the same direction. Laser-the term laser is actually an acronym that stands for light amplification by stimulated emissions of radiation. Output pattern- the output pattern or NA of the ways the light source relates to the energy coupled into the core of the optical fiber. Output power-the output power of the light sources used in fiber optic Communication Systems varies dramatically depending on the application. Modulation speed- Is the main factor that can limit the performance and fiber-optic Communications System. Core Diameter mismatch-this occurs when there is a difference in the core diameters of the two optical fibers. A loss may occur when the Core Diameter of the transmitting optical fiber is greater than the Core Diameter to receiving optical fiber. Current- Is the flow of electrons in the conductor. PIN photodiode- A light-sensitive diode that conducts current in one direction only. PIN photodiodes have a fast response time. Avalanche photodiode (APD) - is a semiconductor-based photo detector (photodiode) which is operated with a relatively high reverse voltage. APD is a highly...
Words: 892 - Pages: 4
Led Marketing Plan
...Led marketing directorIntroduction p. 3 II. Mission and objectives p. 4 III. Capabilities of our company p. 4 IV. Current Marketing Situation p. 5- 10 V. Positioning p. 10 - 11 VI. Marketing Strategy p .12 - 20 1. Product Strategy 2. Pricing strategy 3. Promotion strategy 4. Distribution strategy VII. Budgets p. 20 - 21 VIII. Controls p. 21 -22 IX. Executive Summary p. 23 - 24 X. References p. 24 I. Introduction What is LED light? With a view to creating a better quality of light and saving energy LED light has entered the light industry. Full form of LED is light emitting diode. The concept of LED is pretty simple. Like every other diodes, LED is made of semiconductor filled with impurities from Group IIIA and GROUP VA elements, creating a p-n junction. As electricity flows from the p part to the n part, holes from the p part meet the electrons from the n part. When the holes and electrons meet, they radiate energy. In LED, this energy is used as light. Electroluminescence, the basic concept of LED was discovered in 1907 by H J Round. But until 1968, LEDs were very costly and inefficient for commercial and personal use. The Monsanto Company was the first industry to mass produce LED lights for indicators in 1968. After that, there had been quite some developments in LED technology resulting in the efficiency to rise exponentially with a doubling... READ FULL DOCUMENT Introduction p. 3 II. Mission and objectives p. 4 III. Capabilities of our company p....
Words: 1196 - Pages: 5
...LED LIGHTS A Museum Exhibits Case Study By Deric Payne December 3, 2014 In April 2014, the Durango County Museum of History installed a small exhibit titled Our heritage: Pictures from the past. The collection consists of five daguerreotypes and several silver albumen prints. A study was made to measure the benefits and costs of using LED lights instead of traditional halogen lamps. RISKS OF LIGHTING HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPHS All lighting harms photographs. (Lavedrine 2003) It is the task of the conservator to minimize this harm so that the photographs can be viewed for a significant span of time, typically 50 to 100 years. For these reasons, historical photographs are displayed only periodically in rooms with significantly reduced lighting. These practices minimize the visitor experience and according to Hunt, reducing light levels diminishes color saturation and contrast. (Hunt 1952, 192) In all lighting systems, ultraviolet light (UV) must be eliminated as that spectrum harms photographs the most. Halogen lights must have UV filters installed which adds to their cost and effectiveness. LED lamps do not emit UV light and do not need extra filters. According to a study by the Getty Conservation Institute, fading from LED lamps does not result in any more damage than conventional halogen lamps with ultraviolet filtering. They found that it is likely using LED lamps results in less fading of photographic materials. (Druzil and Miller 2011) METHODOLOGY In the new exhibit,...
Words: 714 - Pages: 3
...Section 1: Claim: Observable factors that affect the composition of LEDs During our research of gallium arsenide phosphide (GaPxAs1-x), which is a semi-conducting material in the form of light emitting diodes, we observed how properties of the data collected directly correlated to the composition of the LED. The observed and measured properties we were able to notice and calculate during our research were wavelength, color, voltage, and temperature. Using a diffraction grating we first tested the different compositions for which color of light was emitted. Our data as can be seen in appendix 1, on pg. L93 table 1, shows that as the composition shifted from GaP0.40As0.60 to GaP1.00As0.00 the colors emitted, shifted from those associated with longer wavelengths to those of shorter wavelengths. (Red to green) We then set up a scanning spectrometer in order to measure the wavelengths, and as can be seen in our data in appendix 1, on pg. L94 table 2, as well as on the graph in appendix 2, we were able to measure the wavelength of each LED with varying composition. According to our data it can be said that greater bond length equals lower Eg, since lower Eg will result in longer wavelength. For example, GaP1.00As0.00 has the shortest wavelength and the shortest bond length, and as a result has the largest band gap energy. From the same data we can also conclude that greater bond strength equals greater Eg due to the fact that GaP1.00As0.00 has the highest bond strength. The......
Words: 1485 - Pages: 6
...A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source. It is a p–n junction diode, which emits light when activated.When a suitable voltage is applied to the leads, electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence, and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy band gap of the semiconductor. An LED is often small in area (less than 1 mm2) and integrated optical components may be used to shape its radiation pattern. Appearing as practical electronic components in 1962, the earliest LEDs emitted low-intensity infrared light. Infrared LEDs are still frequently used as transmitting elements in remote-control circuits, such as those in remote controls for a wide variety of consumer electronics. The first visible-light LEDs were also of low intensity, and limited to red. Modern LEDs are available across the visible,ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness. Early LEDs were often used as indicator lamps for electronic devices, replacing small incandescent bulbs. They were soon packaged into numeric readouts in the form of seven-segment displays, and were commonly seen in digital clocks. Recent developments in LEDs permit them to be used in environmental and task lighting. LEDs have many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer......
Words: 5486 - Pages: 22
Led: Light Emitting Diode
...Light Emitting Diode The light bulb has been seen as one of the best inventions of all time, it has allowed humans to be able to accomplish many tasks that were thought as not possible, if the only light source was natural. As time went on the light bulb usage has greatly expanded not just for the basic use of lighting, being used for everything from relaying information to safely navigating an aircraft. Just like most other great inventions throughout time there is something cleaner, more efficient, and cheaper one, that is where the LED comes in. The concept of the incandescent bulb was being experimented in 1800’s, by heating the filament and exciting the atoms that are in the surrounding gas in the glass container and creating light as the electrons change energy levels. This design has worked for a long time, but the light this created from the incandescent bulb is not very efficient with the great amount of energy that is wasted in the form of heat instead of light, and once the thin filament breaks the bulb is shot. While this has worked over a long period of time and there are more efficient incandescent bulbs it does not match the LED. The LED is able to produce the same light effects with a simpler and cleaner design. Using a semiconductor, when a current is run through the semiconductor it excites the electrons and when the atoms change energy levels they produce light. It is a compact for efficient way of lighting, LED’s don’t have to use gas for the......
Words: 523 - Pages: 3
Consumer Preference Towards Led
...CONSUMER BEHAVIOR TOWARDS PHILIPS LED By Sai Puja S 1502008 Naresh Bitla 1502009 CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION TO THE INDUSTRY LIGHT EMITTING DIODE The electricity used over the lifetime of a single Incandescent bulb costs 5 to 10 times the original Purchase price of the bulb itself. Light Emitting Diode (LED) and Compact Fluorescent Lights (LED) bulbs have revolutionized energy-efficient lighting. 1.1. HISTORY OF LED: In 1907, British scientist Henry J. Round discovered the physical effect of electroluminescence, an optical and electrical phenomenon in which a material emits light in response to an electric current passed through it or to a strong electric field. The light produced was very dim and not bright enough to stimulate further research. In the early 1960s, groups at RCA, IBM, GE and MIT were working actively on LEDs. Among the first commercially available LEDs was an 870 nm IR device sold by Texas Instruments for $130 US. Around the same time, GE distributed red LEDs through the Allied radio catalog for $260 US. Obviously, LEDs were quite expensive and sold only in low volumes. In 1964, IBM used GaAsP LEDs on circuit boards in an early mainframe computer. This is significant for the first time LEDs provided a compelling value proposition to both manufacturer and end-user over conventional lighting technology. As an on-off indicator light, the LED could be mounted directly onto the circuit board, used less power, and had a seemingly......
Words: 7497 - Pages: 30
Marketing Plan of Led
... VII. Marketing promotion VIII. Controlling and renewing procedure I. Introduction LED, light emitting diode, a kind of solid semiconductor, can transform electricity to light directly. Its core is microchip. LED microchip, sealed up by epoxy resin, includes positive pole and negative pole. Semiconductor consists of two parts. One is P-form, holding leading position in the empty space, the other is N-form, mainly having electron. When the two parts connect, P-N is shaped. As electric current flow and affect the microchip, electron is acted towards P-area and compounds with empty space. Then energy is produced by photon. This is our products. However, the feedback from market department sounds not so good. Therefore, we need to analyze our marketing position and fully take advantage of the developing situation to promote our marketing portion. II. Resume Even though LED has gone on the market for several years, its popularization is limited, especially in rural areas. The serious problem can be found in the marketing portion last year. However, paying attention to the shortages, we should open our eyesight and be confident with LED for its unrivalled strength, then catch totally opportunities to achieve our goals with strategies. The aims of our plan is making the marketing portion increase ten percent in three years, remaining LED’s position share with two times in light industry, keeping its leading stance in urban with the rate of rise twenty percent and......
Words: 852 - Pages: 4