Vancouver is a numbered referencing style commonly used in medicine and science, and consists of:
- citations to someone else's work in the text, indicated by the use of a number
- a sequentially numbered reference list at the end of the document providing full details of the corresponding in-text reference
It follows rules established by the International committee of Medical Journal Editors, now maintained by the U.S. National Library of Medicine. It is also known as Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals.
This guide is modeled on Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (2nd edition). You may wish to consult this source directly for additional information or examples.
Printing this guide: Please note printing directly from pages in this guide may alter the citation formatting display. A printable document is available below. Note that this document is adapted from this online guide and does not contain all information and examples. Please use it in conjunction with the online guide which is more regularly updated.
Before using this guide check with your faculty, school or department for their specific referencing guidelines.
Follow these examples closely for all layout, punctuation, spacing and capitalization.
Include the DOI at the end of the reference if it is available.
Dictionary title, edition. Place of publication: Publisher; year. Title of entry; page number.
Dorland's illustrated medical dictionary. 31st ed. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier; c2007. Encephalomalacia; p. 621.
Online dictionary entry
Dictionary title [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; year. Title of entry; [cited YYYY Mon DD]; [# of pages/screens]. Available from: URL
Merriam-Webster medical dictionary [Internet]. Springfield (MA): Merriam-Webster Incorporated; c2005. Cloning; [cited 2006 Nov 16]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.merriam-webster.com/medical/cloning
OED Oxford English dictionary [Internet]. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2012 Sep. Osteomalacia [cited 2012 Nov 14]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.oed.com.ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/view/Entry/234078?redirectedFrom=osteomalacia
Author AA, Author BB. Encyclopedia title. Place of publication: Publisher; year. Title of article; page number.
Turkington C, Tzeel A. The encyclopedia of children's health and wellness. New York: Facts on File, Inc.; c2004. Papilloma virus, human (HPV); p. 381-3.
Electronic Encyclopedia article
Title of encyclopedia [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; year. Title of article; [updated YYYY Mon DD; cited YYYY Mon DD]; [# of pages/screens]. Available from: URL
A.D.A.M. medical encyclopedia [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): A.D.A.M., Inc.; c2005. Ear barotrauma; [updated 2006 Oct 20; cited 2006 Nov 16]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001064.htm
Encyclopedia Britannica Online [Internet]. Academic ed. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica Inc.; 2012. Cytology; [cited 2012 Nov 15]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/148932/cytology
(Citing the entire book/Source)
A.D.A.M. medical encyclopedia [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): A.D.A.M., Inc.; c2015 [updated 2015 Jan 07; cited 2016 Jan 08]. Available from:http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/encyclopedia.html